How To Replace A Capacitor On A Circuit Board

The Chip shortage crisis start from April 2020, and it become more and more serious from 2021 to now.“The chip crisis will last until 2023 impossible to increase production” mentioned by The CEO Jean-Marc Chery of STMicroelectronics, which is Number one of the largest electronics group and the Italian and French state-owned shareholdings,

Deloitte recently released a report that the situation will not be better until 2023. While the intel CEO Pat Gelsinger think that the semiconductor shortage will drift into 2024, from their earlier estimates in 2023, as the shortages hit equipment will be more challenged. (Here is the CNBC report where Gelsinger talks about the Chip shortage).

Intel CEO says “Semiconductor shortage will drift into 2024”

It is still too early to say precisely when the Chip shortage crisis will end, but it won’t be better in 2022.

Why the Chips Production capability cant be improved.

Why The Chips Production Capability Can’t be Improved.

It is not simple to expand the chip production capacity, as the huge investment in the chip industry, and one production line will cost 20 to 30 Billion US dollars. Meanwhile, it is a long investment cycle, and it is uncertain whether the high demand will last, so the chip manufacturers are very cautious about expanding production capacity.

However, there are good news that since the global chips shortage problem has not been effectively relieved, The manufacture of semiconductor such as
Intel, TSMC, Samsung, and SMIC have announced to expand chip production capacity and build the production lines for wafers. Meanwhile, global investment institutions continue to focus on the field of chip semiconductors.

2022 Chip Shortage Update

As a full turnkey service of PCB and PCBA, FX PCB also meets the same Challenge with our customers,

and we suggest our customer plan the production well and try to order the components 3-6 months earlier to avoid the multiple times cost from the market later.

For some urgent orders, in which customers can’t find the chips anymore from the market, we will try to help their sourcing from the China components agency, but the cost is always very expensive than the original one.

FX PCB also gives ideas to customers for the replacement, once customers approved the replacement, we can provide them the price.

We are happy to supply you the sample to confirm the quality, and the small-batch quantity is also acceptable.

Why Is There A Chip Shortage

1. Chips Manufacturing Capability

Chip shortages don’t mean low-end chips, there are many countries that can manufacture this kind of chips. The real shortage is the high-end chips, 14nm, 7nm, 5nm and etc, which need very high technology to make them.

The chip manufacturing industry is concentrated in America, South Asia, Korea, and Japan, where the covid epidemic has severely impacted 2021. Meanwhile, Texas surfed the cold wave, and the Ibaraki chip manufacturer in Japan got the file, which all makes the chips become worse.

2. Chips Demand Increasing

When the epidemic started and the production capacity of the manufacturing plants has been reduced. Most people begin to work and study at home, and it leads the requirement for television, computers, cameras, cloud computing, remote technology and etc increased, Which the Chips need to be used lots

3. Equipment for the Chips

It is not difficult to design the chips, but it is harder to manufacture. We need the lithography machines, especially the ASML lithography machine in Netherland, and it required first-class technology from multiple countries. So it is limited to the lithography machine production. However, they are many companies that demand the chips, which eventually leads to a shortage of supply

4. Material of the Chips

Material of the Chips

Wafers are the main material for manufacturing chips, and the supply of wafers also decreased during the epidemic. the supply and demand relationship of chips has been unbalanced, so the industrial chain has also been affected, and there will naturally be a shortage.

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High-quality PCB Assembly and its Types

Printed circuit boards are panels that are found in almost all modern electronics. They are necessary, first of all, in order to provide both mechanical and electrical connection of various electronic components. To date, there are a large number of factories and enterprises that manufacture and assemble printed circuit boards.

Boards are made of a special dielectric, on which a foil pattern is applied. And already on the finished board, with the drawing correctly applied to it, the necessary electrical components are installed.

Main types of PCB mounting

Installation of printed panels is the process of assembling the necessary electronic module, which consists of the complete connection of components and parts in the desired sequence. This ensures the interaction of all elements and their performance. Separately, it is worth noting the soldering of printed circuit boards.

This process is the joining of two or more components by so-called fusible bonding. Soldering is done using solder and flux. To prevent possible short circuits and other problems, a protective layer is preliminarily applied to the board before soldering.

There are also other types of PCB mounting:

  • output;
  • auto;
  • surface.

Each of these types is used in different situations, depending on the type of components being installed.

Lead-through wiring of printed circuit boards - description and advantages

This type of mounting (also called DIP) is the oldest, and appeared at the same time as the printed panels themselves. It implies the assembly of a certain electronic module by installing components with their leads into the holes of the board and further soldering.

Although this type of PCB mounting has long lost its distribution, it is still impossible to do without it in the manufacture of such categories of electrical appliances as power supplies, power electronics, and the like. In addition, at the moment there are such components, the installation of which is simply impossible without the use of soldering and output wiring.

Installation of Printed Circuit Boards

Before proceeding directly to the installation of printed circuit boards, it is necessary to prepare all the necessary components. To do this, the pigtails of all components are aligned. It should be noted that when forming conclusions, it is impossible to violate the integrity of the components or damage them.

Manual assembly of printed circuit boards is used only in cases where the use of automatic equipment is most unprofitable – if the order is very small. In addition, some boards may not be suitable for automatic installation, so manual installation will be necessary.

Automatic assembly of printed circuit boards

Such installation of components on printed circuit boards is carried out by special expensive equipment in cases where it is advisable to use automated installation. Among the main advantages of this installation method is:

  • high level of design reliability;
  • a significant reduction in the cost of manufactured boards;
  • automatic quality control during the installation process;
  • high work accuracy even with small components;
  • high speed.

In the automatic assembly of printed circuit boards, several types of soldering can be used at once – wave and selective. Wave soldering is a special type of soldering electronic components to the board, using a short time immersion of the bottom surface of the printed circuit board and the conclusions of the components themselves in the solder.

Which industries require pcb assembly services?

This technology is especially relevant in very large industries, because it allows you to process an impressive number of plates and their components per unit of time. To avoid breakage or integrity violations, a protective layer is additionally applied to the plate.

 Selective soldering is a new technology that appeared only in the nineties of the last century and has the best reviews at the moment. It allows high-quality selective mounting of only output electrical components. The level of productivity of this type of installation is several times higher than that of a manual installation.

This type of soldering is financially more profitable and expedient, and due to the modern decrease in the use of output electrical components, selective soldering has become widespread. The main feature of this soldering method is that there is no need to additionally wash the boards from the flux, since it is applied pointwise.

Surface mounting of printed circuit boards and components

This type of mounting is the most progressive and is increasingly used in modern electronics. With its help, it was possible to largely automate the process of manufacturing and mounting boards, as well as their dimensions. 

The main feature of this method is that the electronic components themselves (chips) are mounted on the surface of the plate only from the side that contains the conductive tracks. This eliminates the need for holes. The main advantages of this type of installation are:

  • qualitative reduction in the level of initial cost;
  • reducing the weight and size of the finished product;
  • no need for holes for installed components;
  • allows you to use two sides of the plate at once;
  • increase in the density of installation of components.

However, all this requires more expensive equipment and skilled personnel for manual assembly of printed circuit boards. This type is used to install SMD components; it is the most common method of mounting printed circuit boards today.

Select Top Company for PCB Assembly in China 2022

Each plant for the production of printed circuit boards and their further installation today has high-quality equipment that allows you to fulfill orders of any complexity. In China, FXPCB is ready to take on your pcb assembly project at an affordable price. Also, at such enterprises, it is possible to contract the manufacture of printed circuit boards and the production of circuit harnesses, loops, connectors.

PCB board manufacturing process

How to make a new pcb board?

Especially in the entrepreneurial field, making a PCB Board means adding new features and new benefits to your products: this increases their competitiveness on the market and, consequently, creates a new source of income for the company.

This is why the development phase of PCB Boards can prove to be a long and tiring process: each element must be taken care of in detail to offer added value to the company and to the final consumer. In this article, we will about the ideal process for developing a new PCB Board or proceeding with the revision of an existing board.

# 1 Consultancy and feasibility study

The starting point for the development of the PCB Board is always an in – depth consultation. In fact, to be able to carry out a winning project, it is essential to understand what the customer needs is: it can be a company that wants to put a new product on the market; or, it can be a company that wants to innovate the functionality of its products.

 It is starting from this initial information that a feasibility study is carried out: the possibility of creating the PCB Board is evaluated based on the complexity of the project, the availability of components, the choice of materials, … Furthermore, the project must obviously fall within the budget that the customer makes available to his supplier.

# 2 PCB Board design

Once the feasibility study has been carried out and understood that the customer’s idea is feasible, we proceed with the design of the PCB Board. This is a delicate step: it is starting from the project that you can then proceed with a smoother production, without incurring significant problems that could alter the characteristics of the product, require an increase in costs and increase processing times.

During the design, the attention of the technicians must always be oriented to the User Experience. The goal is to put yourself in the shoes of the final consumer: which functions could you appreciate most? What elements could you consider irrelevant?

What difficulties might you encounter in using the product? Starting from the answer to all these questions, a complete project is created, which takes into account the needs of the company but also those of its customers, who in fact are those who will use the product. We see it in more detail in the article dedicated to software interfaces for machines.

# 3 Prototyping of the PCB Board

 Before proceeding with the sampling and construction of the PCB Board, the production department interfaces directly with the customer. The goal is to offer him support to further improve the initial project.

Advice is then given regarding the materials and the type of components to be adopted. Starting from this consultancy, a prototype of the PCB Board is created, an indispensable step especially if production in large batches is planned.

With the prototyping phase, a limited number of PCB Boards are produced, which will then be thoroughly analyzed by means of technical tools to assess whether the result is satisfactory: in this case, the actual production proceeds; otherwise, elements and components are analyzed to understand where the anomalies are.

 It is possible to identify errors even when the design phase has been carried out accurately, because each PCB Board can hide pitfalls that are only visible in practice. What matters is to go and correct them promptly. 

And for the revision of a PCB Board?

It may happen that it is necessary to proceed with the revision of an existing PCB Board. This generally happens because:

You want to replace its components or innovate the board to offer the product new functions;

The components have entered into obsolescence and therefore become unavailable.

The final customer, who wants to improve the performance of the product, may request the revision; in some circumstances, it is the supplier who recommends this operation, if he has taken care of the design of the PCB Board. In both cases, we proceed to assess what type of revision is necessary: ​​it may be some minor modification or change one or more codes of the bill of materials.

This last phase may involve the remaking of the Pick & Place machine program, the creation of new documents and so on: therefore, these are decidedly more invasive changes. Also in these cases it is necessary to proceed step by step, from design to prototyping, to avoid making mistakes that could later cause limitations in the performance of the board.


 Proceeding with the development of PCB Boards is never a process that the provider of this service faces in complete autonomy. To give life to a winning project, it is necessary that there is an active collaboration between customer and supplier, who will always have the focus on guaranteeing a perfect user experience for the final consumer.

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The Fundamental Phase of Manufacturing PCB board

The manufacturing of the PCB board is a fundamental phase for the success of your business: ensuring a safe device made with attention to the smallest details, allow you to guarantee the end customer a complete, functional and safe product.

 FXPCB knows this well and, for this reason, for each commission it makes available all the experience gained in years of operation in the electronics sector.

Each project is followed and managed with extreme attention and attention to detail: all the steps necessary for the creation of each PCB board are carried out following precise steps, aimed at guaranteeing the customer impeccable products .

The flexibility of FXPCB allows the manufacturing of various PCB boards, both internally designed and designed by third parties. In this way, it is possible to successfully accept and satisfy any request that is made to us. In this article, you can find out how PCB boards are created in FXPCB.

Manual Soldering: The initial stage

Each PCB board has its roots within an initial project: whether it is commissioned directly to FXPCB, or whether it has been created by an external designer, it must be detailed and precise. Inside, in fact, you will find essential information to select and order the components necessary for the creation of the board, including specific brands to be used or certain elements to be mounted on the product.

At this point the BOM is compiled, which indicates the different components and the different positions in which they will be placed.

The bill is then transferred to the warehouse, which prepares all the elements necessary for the manufacturing of the card. A key word that describes FXPCB is “organization”, and it can be found at the base of every activity: even the warehouse is arranged in such a way as to be able to find the components quickly, thus allowing to significantly reducing product delivery times.

Assembly of PCB board: An Important Factor

Once the necessary components have been prepared, proceed with the assembly of the PCB board. First of all, you need to be clear about what type of editing you are planning. It is important to distinguish Surface Mount Technology (SMT) components from Pin Through Hole (PTH) components.

 In the first case, the technology used is more advanced, in which the assembly takes place in a completely automated way through a machine called Pick & Place. In the second case, however, the assembly is carried out mainly manually by specialized operators.

The choice of mounting depends above all on the characteristics that the electronic card in question possesses. In most cases, the board is built through SMT mounting, as it is faster and more accurate. In spite of this, both by choice of the designer and by particular elements positioned on the circuit, the PTH method is still necessary.

Large Scale PCB Board Manufacturing

Before producing the PCB board on a large scale, we proceed with the prototyping phase: this step allows identifying in advance any unsuitable components for that project, or particular criticalities of the printed circuit. In this way, any imperfections can be corrected immediately and proceed more quickly with the subsequent manufacturing of the entire commissioned lot.

After the assembly of the elements by the Pick & Place machine in the case of SMT components, or by the operators in the case of PTH components, we proceed with the soldering.

At FXPCB it is made by means of a vapor-phase oven which is based on advanced technology: also known as the condensation soldering process, it guarantees high quality soldering ensuring that the entire board reaches a uniform temperature, despite the presence of elements with very different characteristics.

AOI control: Optical inspection and packaging

After having correctly soldered the components on the printed circuit, the PCB board is checked by a machine equipped with 3D control called AOI (Automatic Optical Inspection): through a program created specifically for that board, this machine checks the presence of tin, the positioning of the components and the general correctness of the work performed.

If the project foresees it, we proceed with the testing of the PCB board: through a simulator, it is possible to verify the correct functioning of the board on the final product. By doing so, any critical issues can be identified and corrected as soon as possible.

Finally, after this last phase, it ends with the packaging of the products. Each electronic card is carefully placed in cardboard packaging, designed to ensure optimal interlocking, capable of protecting the products in the best possible way during storage and transport.

In conclusion: Hire Professional PCB Manufacturing Company from China

The manufacturing of the PCB board is a delicate process, which requires the intervention of specialized and competent operators.

 FXPCB employs a qualified team in each of its departments, from the design of the board to its packaging, in order to guarantee its customers safe work, made with precision in every detail. If you need an electronic card for your company, contact us: we are at your disposal for any request.

pcb board thermal profiling

Simple Steps to Make PCB Board

To make high quality products, it is essential to carry out each phase of the project with the utmost care.

 Creating a pcb board requires several steps. First of all, we proceed with the design of the product. The design must be precise and detailed, complete with all the elements that will be placed on the pcb board during the assembly phase. Subsequently, the components are assembled manually or by means of automatic machines.

Subsequently, we proceed with the: this process is very delicate and, if not carried out with due attention, will create defective products. The use of a thermal profiler allows monitoring the temperatures present inside the furnace, thus obtaining an error-free soldering.

In this article, FX PCB explains in detail how the thermal profiler for pcb boards works.

What is the thermal profiler?

A thermal profiler is used to monitor the temperature trend inside the soldering ovens. This object can already be inside the oven, as happens in the most recent models, or it can be purchased as an external accessory from various suppliers.

The profiler is composed of some probes that are placed inside the oven on a sample printed circuit, which is a circuit to be scrapped used as a tester. Carrying out tests on concrete objects allows you to verify the effectiveness of the soldering process.

In FX PCB, the soldering takes place by means of vapor-phase ovens, that is ovens that work by means of a liquid which, turning into a vapor, solders the elements on the circuit: the pcb board with the components resting on them is inserted inside them, the oven is closed and the soldering phase proceeds. This operation takes about 6/7 minutes on average, at the end of which a carefully soldered product is obtained.

How does thermal profiler work?

Inside each pcb board there are various elements that require a specific soldering process: all the specifications are indicated on the datasheet, that is the documentation that summarizes the characteristics of each component.

First of all, it is essential to verify that the oven used can effectively monitor the expected phase. Then, we proceed with the soldering on a sample pcb board. At the end, it is important to carefully check the PDF file produced by the profiler: inside there is a graph with a curve, which shows all the information regarding the temperature variations of the oven and the relative times.

Compared to a reflow oven, making profiling using a vapor-phase oven is much simpler

The technology of which it is composed is very homogeneous and is able to effectively solder different types of components. Be it small components, large components or elements with very different sensitivities, the compact dimensions of the vapor-phase oven allow a much more detailed control of the temperature variations inside it.

 Thanks to this feature, it is not necessary to create a profile for each pcb board: you can create a standard profile and use it for different products.

Why is it important to perform a precise solder?

Regardless of the success or failure of the soldering process, the components appear to be firmly fixed on the printed circuit board. During the sampling phase, however, defects caused by an ineffective soldering phase appear: in this case, the pcb board will not work and must be scrapped.

The AOI automatic optical inspection allows you to check the correct assembly of the components, consequently intercepting the presence of excess tin. Thanks to this, it is possible to correct any imperfections or scrap the cards that have defects. Delivering to the customer a board that has not been soldered correctly would mean supplying a product that, in all probability, would stop working after a short time.

In conclusion

The soldering process of the pcb boards is relatively short but very delicate. For this reason, monitoring this phase by means of a thermal profiler is essential: it allows you to check in detail the temperature variations inside the oven, revealing the effectiveness of the soldering.

Are you looking for a reliable partner to entrust with the production of your new pcb boards? Contact us: the FX PCB team will create for you a product that meets your wishes

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Functions of Holes on PCB Board

When designing electronic devices, it is necessary to focus not only on the design of the printed circuit board layout, but also take into account the mechanical and manufacturing aspects of the design process.

Fixing holes play an important role in PCB design. These holes, located on the technological field of the blank, are designed to ensure the correct location of the photomask of the printed circuit board pattern on its blank during exposure and the correct arrangement of the layers of the multilayer printed circuit board during pressing.

Let’s look at a few guidelines to follow when placing fixing holes on a PCB.

Fixing Holes (PCB Tooling Holes)

Although the creation and placement of fixation holes is one of the easiest operations in PCB design, they are essential in fabrication and assembly. There are three main factors to consider when placing fixing holes:

  • Placement in panelization
  • Hole diameter and coating
  • Placement with fiducials

Boards or panels (blanks)

PCB manufacturers do not produce individual printed circuit boards, but entire panels. A panel (blank) is a sheet consisting of a dielectric base laminated on both sides with copper foil. Fixing holes are placed on the technological field of the panel (blank) to facilitate the manufacture of the printed circuit board.

Most manuals from PCB fabricators and assemblies clearly state that fixing holes must be placed on the PCB panel. Therefore, if you are designing your own panel, place fixing holes in the corners of the panel. It should also be taken into account that manufacturers can only accept a customer-designed panel if it fits their size.

Now let’s look at the differences between fixing holes and mounting holes on a PCB.

Differences between fixing and mounting holes

The main difference between fixing holes and mounting holes lies in the plating: fixing holes are through holes without plating, while mounting holes are usually plated with copper. Another difference is the diameter: fixing holes are generally standard sizes, while mounting holes depend on the mounting hardware used to secure the board to the case.

Fiducial marks

Fiducials are reference points located on a printed circuit board that allow screen printing equipment, surface mount equipment, and automated optical inspection equipment to see how the board is oriented in space. Test points should be placed at the 3 corners of the PCB layout, this allows you to accurately determine the orientation of the PCB. Fiducial marks are also recommended to be placed in the corners of the panel, slightly shifted from the fixing holes.

Placing fixing holes in the PCB

In order to place fixing holes on a PCB, in electronic design CAD, you need to use the “place a hole” tool and set parameters: diameter, coating, etc. Altium Designer contains a complete set of tools for designing and laying printed circuit boards. No matter what types of holes are used in a PCB, Altium Designer can help you create high-quality designs and get them ready for production.

During the corrosion process of printed circuit boards, the two-sided boards with a metallized hole need an even more special protection against corrosive attack, in relation to the single-sided boards . This occurs both with regard to the tracks, which are generally much thinner than in single-faced plates, and in the protection of the holes, which, because they are metallized, would be susceptible to corrosive attack.

Negative image – copper tracks

It is for this reason that the protection is done chemically through tin , which is applied in its liquid form by electrolysis and, with this, it can penetrate completely in all holes and in any point that is not protected by the film, applied in the process of image transfer . In the process, the circuit appears in negative, making it possible to apply tin in all points that must not be corroded .

Before corrosive attack, the film or paint is carefully removed. After removal, the plate looks like a copper bottom and pewter tracks and pads.

Tin tracks – copper bottom to be corroded

Another reason we have tin as a protector in the corrosion process is that it has chemical properties that make the corrosive, usually based on ammonia, attack only copper, without any type of attack on tin, which would not work with many others metals

Corroded plate with intact tin

It is extremely important that the corrosion has maximum speed, so that there is no time for the corrosive to attack the tracks laterally, since as the corrosion occurs, the corrosive comes into contact with the side of a track exactly in its thickness, which will not be protected by the tin.

Therefore, it is standard for the plates to be manufactured with ½ ounce copper, which greatly favors this speed of corrosion, which occurs only where there are no tracks. The tracks have their thickness increased to 1 ounce or more.

 It is that before the application of the tin, they also receive by electrolysis, an additional copper layer, but that only increases the thickness of the tracks, pads and the walls of the metallized holes. , leaving only the points to be corroded with the original laminate thickness of ½ ounce. This is what ends up favoring a much faster corrosion. After corrosion, it is necessary to remove the tin that protected the copper.

Tin being removed

A few decades ago, this tin was not removed; it was submerged in reflow oils at high temperatures, making it shiny and ready for soldering. However, the presence of tin on the tracks also made it impossible for the anti-weld mask to adhere well, which ended up loosening during the soldering processes of the plates.

From the implementation of the HASL (Hot Air Solder Leveling) processes, which occurs after the application of the anti-solder mask, this tin that protects the copper in the corrosion process started to be removed, leaving the plate with the circuit only in copper and ready for the impressions of anti-solder mask, legend of components and the other finishes of the printed circuit board .

Corroded plate and tin removed

The corrosion process of double-sided plates needs to have all parameters very well adjusted, establishing the perfect relationship of density, temperature and PH of the corrosive, as well as the speed of the conveyor, in addition to the pressure and direction of the corrosion nozzles, which emit corrosive jets simultaneously on both sides.

For this, the corrosors are equipped with 2 sets of pumps and nozzle frames , which emit these jets from top to bottom and from bottom to top, with well-calculated sizing so that the attack occurs at the same intensity on both sides.

Corrosive spray jet

Any mismatch in these dimensions could cause excessive corrosion on one side and undercorrosion on the other side. Therefore, it is of fundamental importance to constantly observe the correct application of all these parameters.

Therefore, the maintenance and adjustment of our machines are carried out periodically, always observing the production and quality standards in tests that prove the efficiency of all the procedures carried out at FX PCB China. 

china pcba 2022

Types of Printed Circuit Boards

Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are used in the assembly of any electronic devices.  Structurally, PCBs are flat plates with holes that serve as the basis for various electronic components. Thanks to the use of these boards, the maintainability of equipment is significantly increased, and the number of errors is also reduced, compared with the volumetric assembly method.

PCB Manufacturing

For more than 10 years, FX PCB has been manufacturing and supplying high-tech printed circuit boards of any complexity. You can order almost any product from us: from a standard single-sided board to multilayer complex structures. All products are made from high quality innovative materials (fiberglass, getinaks, and anodized aluminum).

In the production process, our specialists use only modern techniques. 

The process itself can be divided into several main stages, at each of which strict multi-level quality control is carried out:

  • Processing of foil material (preparation of blanks);
  • post-processing (drilling holes, forming a pattern of electrical conductors, plating holes, tinning, protective treatment, marking);
  • Installation of all necessary components. Soldering is used as the main method, we also use those types of printed circuit board assembly, thanks to which the finished product fully complies with the specified technical parameters and quality standards;
  • Testing and final multi-level control. At this stage, we apply an automated comprehensive quality check, perform integrity testing of conductors, and carry out optical inspection.

Each main stage includes a lot of intermediate steps. As a result, you get products that fully meet the stated requirements and technical parameters.

4 Types of Printed Circuit Boards

The boards that you can buy from FX PCB meet the optimal ratio of high quality / affordable price. We offer the following types of printed circuit boards:

  • One- sided – inexpensive, durable and reliable dielectric plates with one electrically conductive layer;
  • Double layer – plates made of dielectric, on which a conductive pattern is placed on both sides. They are produced with plated and non-plated holes. The first type is used for amateur assembly of electrical appliances or models, and the second for mass production of various equipment;
  • Multilayer – plates consisting of several (from 4 to 32) layers of foil material and a dielectric. MPP are widely used in the production of industrial and military equipment, automated control systems, multimedia equipment;
  • Flexible and flexible-rigid are complex structural products that are often used as a flexible electrical component that connects various devices and equipment. GPP is used in the automotive industry, household and medical equipment, equipment for the space and military industries;

You can also buy printed circuit boards made on a ceramic base (UHF and HF) from us, the technical characteristics of which remain stable even with sharp temperature fluctuations.

Where to buy special PCB board in China?

In order to order a cost estimate for the products you need, you can use a special table yourself or simply leave a request on our website. Do you have any questions? Contact us in any way convenient for you.


pcb assembly quote 2022

Introduction to PCB Assembly

Microcircuits are one of the central elements of any electronic device for pcb assembly. They are fixed to the insulator plate by mounting printed circuit boards. Conductors are soldered to special tracks, which allow them to be included in a complex working network and establish communication with other contact nodes.

There are several mounting methods that are selected according to the type of device and its purpose:

(SMD) – installation in through holes.

(TNT) – surface mounting of printed circuit boards.

Mixed – this uses a combination of both through-hole mounting and surface mounting on the same board.

Surface mounting of printed circuit boards has a number of advantages, as it increases the functionality and at the same time, reduces the weight and size of the electronic product. Surface mounting is the fixing of components on the outer surface of the board.

 The leads are soldered to the intended track, but do not go through it. This is the main difference from through-hole mounting. Thanks to surface mounting, electrically conductive circuits can be applied on both sides of the board without touching each other. This approach doubles the distance of the working surface for attaching contacts.

Through-hole Mounting

Through-hole mounting or through-hole mounting is the fastening of microcircuits through holes on the board. There is a solder of components in the metallized holes and their strong fastening. A distinctive feature of this method is the fastening of the elements – the conclusions of the components pass through the material of the insulator. Tubercles appear on the other side, they are then carefully cut off.

All types can be used as a separate assembly of printed circuit boards, and in a mixed form. If you need to create a complex microcircuit, then a mixed approach is often used – it allows you to achieve continuous operation of multilayer boards on one or more plates.


The company uses different methods of fixing elements on a dielectric plate – it is selected depending on the type of product. Each of the methods has its own characteristics, both disadvantages and advantages, so the choice in each case will always be individual.

Pros of Surface Mount PCBs

  • It is easy to process plates – no need to drill, perform plating.
  • Components and their outputs have less weight, more modest dimensions.
  • The boards are used on each side and are smaller.
  • Elements are fixed easily and reliably.
  • The resulting product is compact.
  • Chips can be batch processed in a professional oven.

Always Hire Professional PCB Assembly Company in China

Among the shortcomings of the surface method, there is a need for competent specialists and the availability of high-quality equipment, as well as the use of proven components. Our company employs qualified technologists, and has professional equipment for all stages of work, so we can easily avoid the shortcomings of SMD fixing components.

Benefits of TNT through-hole mounting

All contacts in the holes are subjected to reliable soldering.

The risk of overheating of the elements is reduced, they are less likely to be damaged and exfoliate.

It is possible to solder leads to the inner surface of the plate.

The disadvantages of such fixation are the large size and weight of individual components, the finished product weighs more, it is necessary to process the boards after installation, and the time for high-speed signals is reduced.

 The through-hole fastening method is more relevant for manual processing. As a rule, it is used for particularly complex boards or a small-scale production batch.


The technology of mounting printed circuit boards is divided into two general stages:

Installation of elements on the substrate – capacitors, light indicators, compartments for batteries, power buttons, levers, etc.

Soldering components to a printed circuit board

Each of the PCB assembly processes has its own characteristics and difficulties. Several stages allow you to achieve a complete installation of elements and include different types of materials and components in the process. It also adapts the installation to the desired production volumes and provides a high level of reliability, protecting against rejects.


  • The insulating substrate and the surface of the material are prepared for processing.
  • Flux and molten metal are applied for solder.
  • Solder melts to form soldered items.
  • Finished compounds are washed.
  • Product testing and verification.


Final Thought

Features of the pcb assembly line can affect the number of stages, sometimes they can be combined, or some of them are completely excluded.

It is important that the equipment manager and process engineer understand how important it is to follow all the steps and rules of installation to create a reliable and durable product. Also, the steps may vary depending on the type of installation chosen – surface or through holes.

fxpcb contract assembly china

China Smd Components Assembly Quote Online

One of the leading areas of FXPCB activity is the installation of smd components on the board. We work quickly and efficiently, providing contract assembly services for electronics and printed components. This means that we carry out a full cycle of work from the assembly of electronic products to protective varnishing. As a result of cooperation, the customer receives a finished printed circuit board – processed and checked for errors.


Our production facilities allow us to produce any volume of printed circuit boards from piece samples to large lots. Installation of smd components is usually used when fulfilling orders of medium and large volumes. This makes it possible to install elements with high speed and accuracy.

Installing smd components with contract assembly

What sets us apart from other companies?

Well-coordinated work of the design department – the customer provides the terms of reference, according to which the original project is drawn up. At the end, electronic devices are tested and controlled by an artificial intelligence system.

Development of non-standard turnkey products and preparation of a complete set of documentation. Making complex electrical appliances, adding additional services is not a problem for our specialists.

High-tech equipment – the installation of smd components on the board is carried out on surface-mounted machines that can produce up to 42 thousand elements per hour.

Optimal price-quality ratio – we follow the soldering technology, take into account the features of the components and examine the boards by optical means. We approach our obligations responsibly, while setting adequate prices.

Implemented quality management system to improve the reliability and safety of products, improve product quality.

Installing smd components with contract assembly

When ordering the installation of smd components in FXPCB, you get high-quality products made on modern equipment and checked by a special system for defects.


A printed circuit board is a plate with electrical insulation, where electronic components are placed, the connection between which is provided by functional units and thin electrically conductive strips. The printed circuit board itself performs two important functions: it is the carrier of a multi-component base and connects these elements using electrical signals.

The installation of smd components consists of a sequential scheme of actions: solder paste is applied to the board area, then the elements are automatically mounted, reflowed in special furnaces and flux residues are removed. The absence of PCB defects affects the quality of the finished product, so we pay special attention to this. All shortcomings are checked in accordance with the international standard of for printed circuit boards.

PCB defects are divided into:

Visible – which are visible during visual inspection? These include scratches, dents, and wrong sizes.

Hidden – they are not visible, but they will manifest themselves during the operation of the device. These can be microcracks, sagging, and poor connection between contacts.


An important point when installing smd components on a board is to control and check the finished product for errors and malfunctions. It is proven products that will be distinguished by durability and delight the customer with their quality. Our company provides several stages of control:

Incoming control is carried out after the components arrive at the warehouse. The boards are checked for compliance with the documentation, they are checked for size and dimensions, and they look at the quality and volume of the contact area. Also, electrical components are looked at for compliance with the marking, and sometimes they are checked for performance.

The installation of smd components necessarily takes place with inter-operational control between the assembly stages. With the help of optical devices, visual control is carried out after applying solder paste to stencils and installing smd components on boards.

After soldering the elements in a convection oven, they undergo quality control using a robotic optical inspection device – Mirtec Vision Inspector MV-3/7. Automatic inspection evaluates the degree of soldering, the correct location of the components. Sometimes microscopes are used, which allows you to cover every millimeter of the product.

The final stage of installing smd components on the board is the input control of the electrical appliance. The product undergoes full functional testing and then transferred to the warehouse, or delivered to the customer.

Installing smd components with contract assembly

Such multi-stage control allows reducing the presence of hidden and visual defects to zero. To improve the quality of products, testing is added – the customer develops the methodology and describes in detail all the stages.

glass pcb substrate


We all use and know about printed circuit boards. Especially printed circuit boards are widely used every day by mechanics. These kinds of PCB are widely used in electronics, computing devices, technical products, and home gadgets. There are different kinds of PCB and we can create PCB by using different methodologies. Some methodologies are common and some are rarely adopted by people.

A lot of experts use copper to do this process. In the process, a board is created with copper covering and design is generated by removing all the extra copper away. The process is not only easy but also a good one to be used. Like a lot of PCBs, we have glass Printed Circuit Boards too.

Glass Substrate:

Printed Circuit boards are widely used all over the world and it has its best advantage when there is a need to hold the pressure. It is proven that glass substrate act as a cover in a lot of optical devices we can say as a shield. Because of its high thermal stability, it is observed that many people use it to make glass blanks and mirrors. These mirrors are used in different industries and sometimes lenses are also created by it.

These products are not only covered by the glass but also get polished after the production phase. There is another big advantage of glass substrate other than thermal stability is it homogenous to surfaces from smaller diameters to larger areas of thickness.

The major advantage of using the glass is shown that it covers not only a mechanical field but also shows better progress in machines that use semiconductors, electronics, equipment used in the factories, medical equipment, and much more.

It also covers the field of telecommunication and communication industry. In the comparison with other substrate elements, it is observed that glass has shown its better advantage instability and in transmitting signals of high frequency.

 There is not a single type of glass substrate but it also has many types. Experts say that some like, alkali-free glass, sapphire glass, soda-lime glass, and quartz glass are the common ones. Using the glass in circuit boards also covers it bad side of losing frequency for larger periods of signal.

Process In General:

We all know that there is not a standardized PCB in the world, there are different kinds, having different products, spaces, and much more. The process of producing PCB’s are not easy and specialists adopt many steps to bring a safe and efficient PCB.

Usually, the experts when performing the operation using digital designing systems to draw the layout of the desired board pattern on the board.  After the production phase of PCB, the negative pattern is created on a plastic cover and the pattern is in black and white. Glass fiber is the best substrate used to create PCB and it is covered with copper from both sides.

The use of copper foil makes the product less expensive and highly reachable to the market. The whole process is done like the end product is highly stable and good in conductivity.