diy guide to make pcb in 2022

Hello everyone, if you are here, you have surely used or at least seen an Arduino , ESP8266 or some other microcontroller. Also, surely you have already wondered how to make a PCB, plate or electronic card, full of things that we like a lot and are essential to us when creating our Maker projects.

Even maybe you are already an expert and you need your project to include some sensor or component that your development board does not have. The time has come to learn how to make a PCB. However, there is a world of information on the web on how to do them, but we must start at the beginning.

The first thing is to use the protoboard (Bredboard) correctly, to assemble your prototype and check that it works correctly. Next is to pass that prototype to a pre-drilled or multipurpose card, where you must insert the various components (resistors, capacitors, IC, etc), wire them, and solder them. This will allow you to see the performance of your circuit as closely as possible to a professional production PCB.

Summarizing in this article you will learn:

  • use breadboard
  • Basic components used in electronic circuits
  • read schematics
  • Build circuits on breadboard
  • Assemble circuits in pre-drilled or multipurpose phenolic plates
  • solder components

Material to make a PCB from scratch

The first thing is to see the material that we are going to use throughout this article. Here I leave you with everything you need to follow this tutorial. Even if you don’t have a component, don’t wait to take action.

Also read:  Best Place to buy PCb in China in 2022

Take any other similar or with superior or inferior benefit. You have to act; this is the only way to bring your project to a successful conclusion.

  • 1 Breadboard (400 or 800 points)
  • 3 Led 5mm (Colour indistinct)
  • 1 9v battery
  • 1 9v battery clip
  • 3 100k potentiometer (all 3 must be of the same value)
  • 1 RGB LED
  • 5 Resistors of 470 ohms
  • 5 1K resistors
  • 1 x 5*9 Perforated PCB Board (Preferably with single and double-sided holes)
  • 1 Soldering iron (soldering iron) of 40w
  • 1 Rosin core welding
  • 1 Pin Strip with 40
  • Wires (various)

How to manufacture a PCB: assembly of the prototype

Let’s start with the minimum viable prototype. This will allow us two very important things. The first thing is to gain experience with some of the components and tools. The second thing is to get something functional as quickly and cheaply as possible.

Do not forget that you are learning and that is why it is important to get results as soon as possible. It does not matter if everything does not work correctly; that is not the goal. The goal is to move forward and learn by doing.

Let’s start with the most basic, the use of the protoboard.

Use of breadboard

The breadboard is a plate that at first glance shows many holes, in which the terminals (legs) of the electronic components are inserted. But beware, we must be careful where we place things, since inside, this plate has pathways (roads) that connect some holes with others.

Through Hole and SMD Components

There are two types of components that can be mounted on PCB boards, True hole and SMD.

True Hole: They are all the electronic, passive or active components that have ” legs ” and that are soldered to the plates using the holes that were previously made for this purpose.

SMD: They are passive or active components that are soldered to the plates using pads that were previously manufactured; these types of components are the most used today.

Placing components on PCB Board

Next we will do some practical exercises that will allow you to reaffirm the previous concepts.

Exercise 1 Turn on a Hello World Led

We are going to build our first circuit, which is made up of a 470 ohm resistor, a Led (any color) and the 9v battery. We start with the schematic diagram of the circuit, which is composed of 3 elements mentioned above; it is easy to locate each of them.

9v led schematic

The Led and the battery have polarity, that is, they have Positive or Anode (+) and Negative or Cathode (-) poles. It is important to have both poles well located, to avoid a short circuit. On the battery they are identified by the symbols (+) for positive and (-) for negative.

For the Led, the longest Leg (Terminal) is positive and the shortest is negative. The resistor has no polarity, so you can place it interchangeably.

If we translate this electrical diagram to an electrical circuit we obtain the following. The circuit may vary depending on which breadboard you have and how you connect the components.

Led breadboard 9v

Guide yourself with the image to place each of the components, inserting the leg (terminal) in the hole of the Breadboard or protoboard. Start with the Led, then the resistor, leaving the battery last.


pcb components 2022 list

Types of components of an electronic board

The most used methodology for wiring in the construction of electronic circuits is the printed circuit board. This is normally made of a material called fiberglass that is reinforced with epoxy resins, a thermosetting polymer that becomes hard on contact with a catalyzing agent.

This card is subsequently covered, either on one or both sides, with a copper coating that will then be removed with a photochemical process. Why is this done? In this way we get that only the tracks we need on the circuit remain on board.

In each electronic board we can also find a series of components that will always be present and whose correct assembly depends on the operation of electronic devices.

The types of components that we can find are the following:


These electronic elements have the ultimate goal of putting barriers to the passage of electric current through them. The most important characteristic of these is their ohmic resistance, which is given by the physical qualities of the materials present in their composition and which means that their values ​​remain unchanged for both direct and alternating currents.

Another of their peculiarities is the maximum power at which they can dissipate you, depending on their physical construction.

Resistors can be fixed or variable depending on their resistive value.


It is a passive device , used in electricity and electronics , capable of storing energy by sustaining an electric field. Its composition is as follows: two parallel metal frames that are normally made of aluminum, separated by a dielectric material.


Transistors are devices that regulate current or voltage flows in an electronic circuit, acting as switches and/or amplifiers of electrical or electronic signals.


These elements are also known as rectifiers, since they carry out the transformation from an alternating current to a pulsating direct current. Diodes are semiconductor mechanisms that act as unidirectional current switches, classified according to type, voltage and current capacity.

The reels Placement on Printed Circuit Board


Inductors or coils are passive components with the ability to store energy in the form of magnetic fields. They are formed by a hollow coil head of a conductor made mainly of two materials, enameled copper wire, or thread.

The switches

The switches are positioned in an electronic circuit controlling the flows of electricity, stopping the circulation of electrons allowing switching on/off. Its operation depends on whether if they touch a metal contact, being closed when yes and open when not.

The fuses

A fuse cuts off the passage of electrical current by burning the filaments or metal sheets of which they are composed. Its location in an electrical circuit is at the beginning, avoiding that if its current increases it reaches the circuit ruining the device.

What are different types of PCB Components in 2022?

PCB components are available in many different types to control and regulate electrical flow through a specific circuit. Resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits (ICs) are the most common of all components used in almost every electronic device, from a cell phone to a portable radio. These components must be placed in strategic positions along the surface of the printed circuit board (PCB) to create a useful electronic circuit.

Circuit boards contain insulators and other tiny electronic components.

A resistor is a tubular component that typically has specifically colored stripes along its outer surface. Its main purpose is to prevent excessive electrical current from entering the circuit area. Each resistor can only stop a certain amount of current, based on the component’s resistance rating.

The outer stripes signify a resistance values that assemblers reference when building a PCB. Improperly placed resistors can result in damage to other components on the circuit board from high current flows.

Circuit boards include an insulated board equipped with electronic components that have been soldered together.

The Role of Capacitors

Capacitors look like small cylinders that normally protrude from the surface of a PCB. These PCB components use the cylinder to store electrical current; the capacitor allows some current to flow out of the storage area to create a stable power supply for the rest of the PCB.

The electronic device may not function properly if the capacitors are placed incorrectly.

As a result of poorly placed or incorrectly placed capacitors, the electrical flow through the device circuits can have large variations that cause component failure.

Diodes protect the direction of flow of electrical current

Diodes protect the direction of flow of electrical current through PCB components. Since current flows in and out of the diode component, the electric flux cannot reverse direction through the same diode. The component’s internal design forms a barrier to reverse current flow; this obstacle is especially useful for protecting sensitive microchips that can easily fail due to excessive electrical flows.

Transistors are printed circuit board components that can amplify electrical current or switch it to a different part of the circuit. They usually have three legs that connect to the PCB instead of the typical two-leg design.

Electricity can be multiplied inside the transistor and directed to a specific region of the circuit. It can also change the direction of current flow to power a different circuit area, such as when buttons are pressed on a television remote.

Conclusion: 2022 Best PCB Board Manufacturing at FXPCB China

Integrated circuits are essentially small PCBs inside a tiny microchip. These square PCB components have allowed electronic devices to become smaller as more circuitry can be contained in a smaller package. As a result, remote controls and cell phones have become progressively smaller over time.

A resistor is an electronic component that can decrease the voltage of a circuit and its flow of electric current, and a capacitor is a component that can store electrical charges.

Where to get best pcb manufacturing services in China in 2022?

FXPCB is leading printed circuit board manufacturer and provide cheap pcb assembly along with online pcb free quote. You can order prototype or bulk ceramic, rigid flex pcb here.

PCB manufacturing China 2022

If we are going to carry out the repair of a printed circuit board, or PCB, the first thing we must do is check that it does not have defective components that are affecting its correct functioning.

What are the processes to detect components that do not work?

There are two systems that are primarily used for detecting malfunctioning components.

ICT Circuit Test

The first is an in circuit test (ICT) where, for example, a populated printed circuit board (PCB) is tested, checking for shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance, and other basic quantities that will show if the assembly is in good state. This is done without powering the electronic board.

Functional test

After this we find the functional part, that in this the pcb board is fed, here, there is a risk that when feeding it, it will have some more problems. For this reason, the ICT is carried out first, which is the one used to detect misplaced components, or if there is a short circuit that could cause a functional failure, once this is done, it is confirmed that the electronic board works correctly.

What types of components are easiest to detect in the presence of a fault?

The easiest components to detect, if we are in the presence of a failure, are the passive ones. Regardless of whether or not they receive power, we can measure them and identify their functionality.

However, in the case of active components, until they are supplied with power, they do not start to work properly, which means that the component may contain some welding problem or, in its periphery, there may be something causing failure, which would result in failure of the electronic board circuit flow.

As we have mentioned before, sometimes the damage can not only be in the components but also in the board, therefore, it is important to do a thorough review of it, since a damage to the board, no matter how slight, can cause complex damage to the rest of the components.

What are the processes that have been used to clean electronic boards?

In today’s electronics industry, pcb boards are not cleaned. Years ago, electronic boards were soldered, and then, as a general rule, washed in cleaning machines very similar to a domestic washing machine, but much more sophisticated.

This is because the products that were used for welding, if left on the plate, could harm it, so they had to be removed. This was an expensive process, in addition to the fact that products called CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) were used.

These are substances derived from saturated hydrocarbons obtained by replacing hydrogen atoms with chlorine and fluorine atoms, which are highly polluting and contributed to the creation of the hole in the ozone layer, which has led to prohibiting its use.

This redirected the industry to look for alternatives to avoid having to clean the electronic boards; among these new alternatives the “No Clean” technique emerged, which means, not to clean (referring to the fact of not having to clean the electronic boards) .

How are electronic boards cleaned today?

Currently the plates are not cleaned unless it is a repair that is carried out manually; in this case cleaning is required since small residues may remain after this. The cleaning is done locally, focused on the areas where said waste is found; it is not done in a general way as it was done in the past.

How to clean an electronic board before a repair?

The first thing we must do when cleaning our pcb board is to remove the dust; we can do this using compressed air. It is considered to be an aesthetic process rather than a functional one.

However, it is carried out to be able to carry out other processes in a more comfortable and precise way, in addition to avoiding long processes of searching for breakages or electronic failures.

The second thing is to check the components, because if we find any failure in a component (many of the components used in electronic assemblies are highly sensitive to static electricity.


If pcb boards are touched with fingers without measures for discharge to ground from electrical charges, then they pass to the circuits causing damage), it is best to replace it. It is in this replacement process that the plate really gets dirty, and this is where the cleaning process must be carried out.

This cleaning, as we have mentioned before, will be done locally with special solvents for this type of component. Isopropyl alcohol is one of the elements widely used to clean electronic boards.

Under these processes we will be able to generate an effective and clean repair, avoiding residues on our electronic board.

cheap pcb manufacturing 2022

Printed circuit boards have huge applications in almost every industry. To execute a successful electronic project, you need skilled pcb manufacturing company. In this article we are going to teach you everything you need to know about printed circuit boards. Don’t miss it!

What is a printed circuit board or PCB?

So that you understand from the beginning what a PCB is, it is what makes all the electronic devices around you work. For example, the computer or mobile you are using to read this article has a PCB that makes it possible to perform all the actions you want.  Moreover, printed circuit boards can be considered the “organs” of electronic devices.

If we get more technical, a PCB is a physical support in which we install different electronic or electrical components that interconnect with each other, such as resistors, capacitors, chips, connectors…

If you have the opportunity and look inside a computer you will be able to see several flat plates, these are motherboards that have a PCB and the components that we mentioned above attached to them.

For the energy to pass between them, through very fine conductive tracks, generally made of copper, a rail is generated that performs a function similar to that of a cable.

We can find both a simple plate that can have conductive tracks on one side and both and more complex ones that have these tracks stacked in multiple layers.

To support these tracks and the components in them, a combination of ceramic materials, resins… with fiberglass is used. Although thanks to today’s advances, we can find materials such as celluloid or conductive paint tracks.

Historical background of the printed circuit board

The inventor of the printed circuit is believed to have been an Austrian engineer named Paul Eisler around the year 1936, when he made a radio.

In the year 1943, approximately, they began to manufacture radios on a large scale for use in the Second World War, and when it ended, the United States released the invention so that it could be commercialized. But it was not until the 1950s that they became popular. Similarly, in these years, the US Navy developed self-assembly.

Before the creation of printed circuits, the point-to-point connection was carried out and for small productions or prototypes, the wire wrap method.

The first printed circuits that were created are not like those of today. Originally, electronic components were used as copper or brass pins. Furthermore, these were several millimeters long, and holes for these pins were drilled into the circuit.

These components were soldered to the board and passed through the holes. Moreover, this method was called through the hole.

In 1950, as we have mentioned, self-assembly was created. This method consisted of component pins being inserted into the interconnect pattern foil and subsequently soldered.

Finally, with advances in card lamination and engraving techniques, this process evolved into what is done today. The soldering is done automatically through a flow of molten solder, in a wave soldering machine.

Furthermore, the cost that was associated with the holes that had to be made disappears thanks to surface mounting.

What is inside a printed circuit board?

The most complex circuits are made up of several conductive layers, separated by a substrate, an insulating material.

To connect the tracks of different layers, holes called vias are used that may or may not go completely through the PCB.

It is important that, although the substrate may have different compositions, none of these are conductive. Each electrical track has its own signal and voltage. Two types of substrates are commonly used. Pertinax and FR-4, a resin-coated fiberglass material that isfire-resistantt.

When we talk about electronic components, they will go on the outside of the PCB and normally on both sides.

PCB board creation process

We have already been able to learn that they are made up of integrated circuit boards, but below, we will list the steps to manufacture a PCB:

  1. PCB design using software
  2. Serigraphed and photographic tracing
  3. Printing of inner layers
  4. Inspection and verification (AOI)
  5. Oxide film and lamination
  6. Drilling holes
  7. Metallic drilling
  8. Outside film of tracks and electroplating
  9. Strip etch strip
  10. Welding mask and legend
  11. Soldering of components and final tests.

If you want to know more curiosities about electronics, stay tuned to our blog and our social networks.

Where to get best pcb manufacturing services in 2022 in China?

The best website in 2022 to get pcb board manufacturing and pcb assembly is Fx pcb.

The Best Place To Buy PCB From China

Best Place To Buy PCB From China


Are you looking to buy PCBs in large quantities to manufacture devices for your companies? Then you get the PCBs from a reputed and reliable manufacturer to avoid any future inconvenience. It is crucial since the PCB quality will determine the performance of your devices and control your business reputation. On top of everything, manufacturing top-end, reliable, and long-lasting PCBs isn’t an easy task. Chinese manufacturers often fail to deliver your required amount of PCBs on time, and some may even deliver you defective products.

Hence, finding the best place to buy PCBs from China is arduous to ensure the highest quality PCBs.

But, don’t get frustrated if you don’t know where to buy PCB from China since we have covered it for you. Here, at FX PCB, we guarantee you the best PCB manufacturing and assembly at affordable pricing without compromising quality, durability, and performance.

So, let’s begin.

Table of Contents

Best Place To Buy PCB From China

The Chinese PCB manufacturing market has seen leaps and bounds progress in the recent decade. Also, they offer low-cost PCBs worldwide. However, some manufacturers might supply you with poor-quality PCBs, which could be detrimental to your business.

Hence, as your trusted PCB manufacturer, FX PCB has taken over the responsibility to inform you where to buy PCB from China without compromising quality.

When you need a high-quality PCB, you need to look at different aspects of the manufacturing company. It includes:

  1. The manufacturer must have a long experience in manufacturing and assembling PCBs. Also, you should look at their market reputation to find whether or not the company has good feedback.
  2. The manufacturer should be skilled in manufacturing different kinds of PCBs. It is crucial since different devices will need different PCBs to function properly. Hence, you will need various kinds of PCBs. And you should get your required PCBs from one manufacturer instead of outsourcing them from different suppliers. It will streamline your supply chain and reduce the outsourcing time considerably.
  3. The manufacturer must equip with the most advanced technologies to design and manufacture PCBs. For instance, FX PCB uses Altium, KiCAD EDA, etc., high-end software to design PCBs that ensures the highest quality you can anticipate.
  4. The best PCB manufacturer should always maintain your delivery deadline. It is crucial since the world is going through a chipset crisis. Hence, the manufacturer with deadline meeting ability is a boon for your business.
  5. Your select manufacturer must offer PCBs in different quantities. It means you should be able to order both in bulk or customized amount to meet your necessity. Plus, it should provide you with prototypes for checking the quality and performance.
  6. The shipment of the manufacturer must be fast and affordable. When you order PCBs from a manufacturer, you should always ask them about their shipment method. It will affect the PCB pricing, and also, some manufacturers may charge you additionally for the shipment. So, read the terms and conditions before ordering from any manufacturer. But, at FX PCB, we promise you the fastest shipment at the lowest cost.
  7. The manufacturer should offer satisfactory after-sales service. It is crucial because some of your PCBs might be faulty, and when it happens, after-sales service from the manufacturer will save your day. Plus, good after-sales service will ensure peace of mind, and you may prefer singing a better deal with the company.

FX PCB: Your Trusted PCB Manufacturer

FX PCB has been in the PCB manufacturing and assembly industry for over 10+ years. You can trust our qualified engineers and laborers to design, build and supply the best PCBs in the market. We have top-of-the-line manufacturing factories.

If you are looking for the best place to buy PCB in China, you can definitely trust us. We maintain maximum quality with all possible compliance. Plus, we offer reasonable pricing for all of our PCB manufacturing and shipment. We make it possible through our highly streamlined product line and modern-day engineering.

We have worked with 100+ companies, and we are glad that we have received excellent feedback from our respected customers. Whether you want metal, ceramic, or FR4 PCBs, we are ready to supply them to you within your required timeline.

Do you want to bulk, medium, or a small amount of Printed Circuit Boards? We will surely serve you with the right quality and quantity you want. Plus, we can ship you PCB prototypes so you can check them. We also have our SMT factory. It has enabled us to shorten the product line and costing, and so, we proudly offer you the most affordable PCBs worldwide.

Last but not least, we promise the fastest shipment to meet your deadline and ensure your business runs without stoppage. You may reach us through our email or website. We offer both customized and bulk delivery, so you always have the best option within your budget.

Some of our key benefits in a nutshell:

  • We are over 10+ years in manufacturing and assembling all types of PCBs. We are skilled in manufacturing rigid, flexible, rigid-flex, multi-layer, ceramic, metal, etc., types of PCBs with the highest quality assurance.
  • We offer you both bulk and customized orders to meet your business needs. Whether you need thousands of PCBs or a handful of one, we can deliver them to you. Plus, we also deliver prototypes according to your needs.
  • Our skilled engineers, technicians, and laborers are well-trained in PCB manufacturing. Plus, we use the latest software and machines to design, manufacture and assemble PCBs that meet your requirements.
  • We have the fastest and cheapest shipment service in China across the world. Thus, you rest assured to get your ordered PCBs delivered to your doorstep within the deadline.
  • Our customer care service will look after your orders with intensive care. You can contact us anytime before, during, and after your delivery for any inconvenience. We ensure you the fastest response and satisfactory after-sales service.

Final Words

China is the leading PCB manufacturer worldwide. Multiple Chinese PCB manufacturers, including FX PCB, will offer you excellent service. You can depend on us for great quality, service, fastest shipment, and widest range of PCB manufacturing processes. If you need more information on it, you can always reach us, and we will also welcome any feedback you give.

Peter Gong
Peter Gong

I am Peter Gong. I have been working in PCB and PCBA industry for 15+ years now. I have been a part of the PCB revolution with my dedication to circuit board technologies and creative ideas. I write in FX PCB to impart my knowledge on PCB and PCBA for all circuit board lovers, manufacturers, and users.

How To Replace A Capacitor On A Circuit Board


A capacitor is a basic component of a circuit board. It is responsible for storing electrical energy to help the device work properly. The capacitor may get damaged or blown away due to excessive or overheat and over-electricity.

At this point, you must replace the capacitor to help the circuit board work properly. In case you don’t know how to replace a capacitor on a circuit board, we are here to help you.

A capacitor contains electrolytes and it can spill or burst. It will then spread the electrolyte over the entire circuit board. You have to replace the damaged capacitor then. Luckily, the process of removing and replacing the capacitor on a circuit board is easier than most people imagine.

The following tips will help you in this regard greatly.

Table of Contents

How To Replace A Capacitor On A Circuit Board

Replacing a blown-out capacitor within a few dollars is way cheaper than installing a new circuit board for your computer or other electric gadgets. Thus, knowing the technique to replace a blown-out or damaged circuit board capacitor is a money-saving deal.

Step 1: Know when to replace the capacitor

Usually, a damaged capacitor will signal different mischievous properties. Thus, these signals work as an early alert for you to prepare for replacing the capacitor.

  • The screen of your device shoes irregular lines
  • Sometimes you will see flickering on the screen
  • The device will switch on and off irregularly
  • You can’t return the device from its standby mode
  • At the worst, the device won’t turn on

Since the capacitor stores and releases the essential energy to run any device, slight damage can lead to the distortion or damage of your entire device. So, replacing the capacitor is a must.

Step 2: Arrange the tools for capacitor replacement

When you witness one or more signals of a damaged capacitor that we mentioned above, you need to prepare to replace the unit. Thus, you will need the following accessories:

  1. A tool to open the device casing. Preferably, you should use a HEX wrench or screwdriver.
  2. Soldering iron and mask
  3. The new capacitor ( you have to match its value with the existing capacitor)

Step 3: Access the damaged capacitor

Once you are ready with all of your tools to remove and replace the blown-out capacitor, it’s time to jump into the working steps directly. First, turn off your device appropriately. Then, unplug it correctly from the main electrical outlet for safety purposes.

Now, you need to access the circuit board. For this, open up the casing using the HEX wrench or screwdriver. Make sure you have kept the screws in a separate place safely so that you may access them whenever necessary.

You may check the user manual if you are having trouble opening the device casing and accessing the circuit board. Once you have found the circuit board, bring it under sufficient lighting. It will help you check the circuit board capacitor properly.

You can then find the damaged capacitor with ease. A damaged capacitor may look like:

  1. Brownish fluid leaking from the damaged capacitor
  2. The capacitor will be corroded and sipping fluid
  3. The leads will start coming out of the capacitor

These signs will help you quickly locate the blown-out or damaged capacitor that needs replacement. Also, look at the top of the capacitor. Its top will have a convex shape and bend towards the outside which is opposite of a working capacitor.

Step 4: Remove the damaged capacitor

Before you remove the old capacitor for replacement, check its voltage, temperature rating, and capacitance accurately. It is essential since you have to replace it with an equally valued capacitor to permit the device to work properly.

Next, locate the location of the soldering point at the back of the capacitor. It would hold the capacitor. Heat your soldering iron and press it against the soldering back of the capacitor. You need to hold down the soldering iron until the capacitor gets loosened from the circuit board. Then, perform the task on the other side to loosen the wiring and remove the capacitor.

Sometimes, the joint may be covered with too much soldering. It will prevent the soldering iron from reaching the exact point. Thus, use a soldering wick to remove the extra soldering from the back of the circuit board. Then, position the heated soldering iron accurately and remove the blown-out capacitor accurately.

You don’t need to hasten the job. Do it in a relaxed mode and it will ensure maximum accuracy.

Step 5: Install the new capacitor

You have to mount the new capacitor in a way so that it maintains the same height as the older one. For this, trim the leads of your newly bought capacitor. Then, carefully position the new capacitor on the soldered holes of the old replacement.

Ensure that you have positioned the capacitor with accurate polarity(the positive and negative heads are in correct alignment). Then, heat the soldering iron and press it against the back of the circuit board right where the capacitor joint is located.

Check when the soldering tip falls into the hole. Then press the wire lead of the board through the soldered hole appropriately. The old soldering joint will securely hold the newly replaced capacitor and help it function accurately.

You have to perform the soldering task on the other side of the circuit board too. Finally, mount the circuit board into the device casing properly to finish off the capacitor replacement task.

Final Words

This is our complete guide on how to replace a capacitor on a circuit board. We hope that it will allow you to replace the damaged capacitor of your device and replace it with a new one quickly. The process doesn’t need any electrical expertise. Just make sure you do the job attentively and use the correct value for the capacitor.

Peter Gong
Peter Gong

I am Peter Gong. I have been working in PCB and PCBA industry for 15+ years now. I have been a part of the PCB revolution with my dedication to circuit board technologies and creative ideas. I write in FX PCB to impart my knowledge on PCB and PCBA for all circuit board lovers, manufacturers, and users.

Turnkey PCB Assembly

Turnkey PCB Assembly


The world is getting faster everyday, and so, everyone wants the fastest delivery of their products ready to be used. The PCB industry and PCB buyers aren’t any exceptions. PCB buyers now want their PCB Assembly to be fully ready for use as soon as it is delivered.

So, the term “Turnkey PCB assembly’ has become the new buzzword of the industry. It mainly refers to the assembled PCB that buyers may use to manufacturer their devices right out of the box. But, turnkey PCB is much more than its immediate readiness.

We will look deep into the matter and suggest how to find a proper turnkey PCB supplier that will meet your demands and requirements.

Table of Contents

What Is Trunkey PCB Assembly?

To understand what turnkey PCBA means, you have to understand the meaning of turkey firstly. It means any product delivered to the buyer with readiness for immediate use.

That’s where things can get tricky. You may ask that all PCBs are ready for immediate use as you deliver them with full preparedness. But that’s not the reality.

Yes, manufacturers like FX PCB deliver the fully assembled PCB with necessary components as the buyer or device manufacturers ask. But, the printed circuit board is only the tip of the entire processing that links with PCB design, fabrication, fully assembled set up, and final product delivery to the buyer with the detailed diagram of the components on the PCB.

Therefore, turnkey PCB refers to a complete assembly procedure that includes printed circuit board manufacturing, its delivery, the design, component diagram, all components, and anything else that buyers need.

It enables the actual device manufacturers to know and understand their PCBs entirely to use them with immediate effect. On top of it, a fully assembled turnkey PCB allows buyers to focus on their actual manufacturing better since the PCB manufacturer will take care of everything else necessary, such as custom PCB design, and deliver it with all key information for immediate use.

Since the PCB assembly comes with all possible and required information for the buyers, it reduces their manufacturing time and saves money. This readiness of the turnkey PCB has also sped up the electronic world superbly.

Advantages of Turnkey PCB Assembly

Turnkey PCB, with its readiness in use, comes with some definite benefits. It includes-

Reduces Production Time:

The main benefit of the turnkey PCB is it drastically reduces the production time. Most turnkey PCB manufacturers, such as FX PCB, comes with a streamlined production mechanism that helps them deliver the turnkey printed circuit board fully assembled in the shortest possible time.

Turnkey PCB assembler actually assigns their one engineer for one company or buyer. So, within a short period, he will understand what the buyer wants and design the PCBs accordingly. It speeds up the manufacturing and also results in lesser faults during the production phase.

Also, when an engineer with his team is assigned to work with one buyer instead of multiple contacts, they can outsource the essential materials and components that further boost the production speed, which is a great help for the buyers.

Turnkey PCBs are Cost-Effective:

Turnkey printed circuit board service is often streamlined and uniform. So, a group focuses on building a particular type of PCB, and it helps reduce the production cost. The quick and knowledgeable team will help greatly to reduce the cost for each PCB.

Less Prone to Errors:

Perhaps the most striking benefit of the turnkey PCB is its quality maintenance, leading to fewer errors on the circuit board. It is crucial since the tiniest fault in the circuit board could be hazardous for the device.

Also, buyers contacting one company will have less communication and understanding issues which also helps in reducing the errors of printed circuit boards. When you work with a reputed turnkey PCB manufacturing team, they will know exactly how to go about from Step 1 to Step 2 and follow it until the PCB assembly is completed.

Easiness in Work:

The manufacturer will deliver a turnkey PCB fully assembled with a detailed design and diagram for the components. As buyers know the details about which component is located on the circuit board, their device manufacturing works easily and fast.  Also, it saves time and removes any hassle during work time.

Steps of PCB Turnkey Assembly:

We have already mentioned that turnkey circuit board assembly is a streamlined process to speed up the delivery time and reduce production costs. Its steps include-

  • Parts outsourcing: Firstly, the PCB manufacturer will collect the parts required for buyers’ customized circuit board design as per your requirements. Turnkey PCB assemblers will outsource the components and forward them to the manufacturing team.
  • Designing: Next, the engineering team will use PCB design software to create the diagram of the components on the circuit board. Once the design is ready, the actual manufacturing process will start soon.
  • Assembly process: The team will work on the PCB design to develop the printed circuit board from scratch and attach the essential components according to the instructions.
  • Testing and prototype: After the assembly, engineers will use different testing methods to find the errors on the circuit board if there are any. Once the testing is done, they will create the prototypes.
  • Delivery and aftermarket service: When the PCB assembly successfully passes the testing, these will be delivered to the buyers. A good manufacturer, such as FX PCB, will also offer excellent aftermarket service to continue helping the buyers in their necessity.

Final Words

Turnkey PCB assembly, with its readiness for use right after the delivery, has brought a revolution in the electrical and electronics industry. More and more buyers opt for fully assembled printed circuit boards with detailed information on components, design, and a diagram for quick usability. With 10+ years of experience in PCB manufacturing, FX PCB is ready to deliver you the best turnkey PCB service at the lowest cost without compromising quality.

Peter Gong
Peter Gong

I am Peter Gong. I have been working in PCB and PCBA industry for 15+ years now. I have been a part of the PCB revolution with my dedication to circuit board technologies and creative ideas. I write in FX PCB to impart my knowledge on PCB and PCBA for all circuit board lovers, manufacturers, and users.

PCB Connector Types and Its Uses

PCB Connector Types


PCB, aka the printed circuit board, has become the lifeline to every electrical device we use these days for different use. The PCB helps link among PCB connectors to transfer signals from one component to another to help the entire device work properly.

Depending on their applications, functioning, and construction design, you will find many PCB connector types in a single device. The classification mainly includes board-to-board and wire-to-wire PCB connections, but it also has different subcategories due to versatile uses.

In today’s discussion, you will find the details about the common types of PCB connectors and their uses that will be understandable even for novices.

So, let’s check it out.

Table of Contents

What Is PCB Connector?

A PCB connector will connect electrical components. The connection could be on the conductive track itself. Also, it could be between the pads used in the circuit board. Many devices come with multiple PCBs and use various equipment or connections to link two or more printed circuit boards within the device.

You will find the connectors right on the circuit boards. It aims to transfer power or signals from one PCB to another to help the device function properly. Also, it may transfer the signal from one unit of the device to another via the different boards and connections.

The Two Main PCB Connector Types

Countless devices use the PCB connectors in different ways, which have usurped the development of different connections. That’s why it is essential that the connection type meets the design necessity of the device and is also suitable for it.

The two common types of PCB connectors are-

Board to Board Connections:

As the name suggests, the board-to-board PCB connectors link between two PCBs. It doesn’t use any cable or wire for the connection and transfers signals wirelessly. For the permanent board-to-board connections, manufacturers use the ‘fit and forget’ method.

The connection uses receptacles and pins instead of wires for signal transfer..

Wire to Board Connections:

The connection uses wire or cable to connect printed circuit board and PCB connectors. It is an easy connecting process for different devices and cost-effective too. It is used mostly in normal PCB devices where there’re not so many complex connections.

Apart from these two main PCB connectors, you will also see many connection types for PCB, depending on their functions and designs. The list includes the following ones-

Male PCB Connectors:

The PCV connector comes with a row of pins. The pins are simple and arranged in various spacing within the board. The pin arrangement works with its headers and is also known as pin header connections for the boards. The spacing differs from 0.1 inches to 0.2 to 0.197 inches or even more.

Female PCB Connector:

The female connector for PCB is also referred to as a socket connection. People also call it the header receptacles for its design. The female connector will accommodate the male connector header tightly within it.

The male and female PCB connections create a safe passage for the electrical components to pass through power and electrical signals.

Backplane Connectors:

The backplane connector helps to connect two different PCBs snuggly. The connection reduces signal loss, and so boosts the data transfer rate between the boards. It is, in reality, a support structure and provides help to connect printed circuit boards.

You can also use it to integrate different electrical components on its plane. The method is known as a daughterboard.

USB Connectors:

In today’s world, USB connection is the heart of many devices. Also, you will see the USB connectors more frequently than most other types of PCB connectors. You can see it in smartphones, laptops, tablets, computers, and where not!

There are four types of USB connectors you will find in modern-day devices-

  • USB-A: Computers and laptops have USB-A type connectors along with the female end. The common example includes computer mouse, memory sticks, etc. The female end works as the receptacle, and the male ends as the header to connect devices.
  • USB-B: Type B USB connectors are bulky and heavier. It is used in large devices where spacing isn’t an issue, such as music players.
  • USB-C: Type C connectors are the latest edition in the USB sector and have been the key of most smartphones these days. Its updated design is strengthened for most demanding jobs. It can transfer power, data, and video at the same time. So, it is the most versatile USB connector s at present. It also doesn’t have polarity, so you won’t have to bother about male or female ends to connect the devices with a USB-C cable.
  • Micro-USB: Likewise, USB-C connectors, Micro USBs are also the latest release. You can find it in smartphones, digital cameras, external hard disks, etc.

RCA Connectors:

RCA connectors are amongst the oldest PCB connectors and have been in the industry for nearly a century now. Until modern-day PCB connectors took over in the 21st millennium, almost every device used RCA connectors.

It transmits S/PDIF and stereo audio. It also transmits composite videos. Since the invention of USB connectors, RCA connections have lost their place and are nearly extinct now.

Audio Connectors:

As the name suggests, audio connectors are designed to transmit and transfer audio from one device to another. It has a varied size, and the size will determine where and how the audio connectors will be used.

The invention of Bluetooth and wireless transmission of data have slowly taken over the audio connectors, and they are also on the verge of extinction. There are three different types of audio connectors-

  • The 6.5mm connectors are the mainstream connectors and are used in amplifiers and guitars mostly.
  • The 3.5mm connectors are actually the headphones. You will see it on smartphones, PCs, laptops, and MP3 players. It is also the most common audio connector type.
  • The 2.5mm audio connectors are versatile since it has both headphone and microphone. So, you can use both of these benefits at the same time.

Barrel Connectors:

Barrel connectors for PCB are old but highly versatile. You can find the connector in AC/DC converter adapter. It is adaptable easily in different demanding needs and accommodates various power ratings as well.

Its sleeve works as the covering. The sleeve could be made of either plastic or rubber with 3.55mm or 5.55mm size variations. Its actual connector is the metal part with a 2.1mm pin.

Molex Connectors:

Molex connectors are also among the oldest PCB connection types. You can see it on the computers of the previous generation. The connection has a pin model, and it is used to generate power to various drives of the computer and devices.

The main benefit of this connector is that a high amount of current can pass through it without any damage. So, it is durable and dependable for abusive services.

JST Connectors:

JST connectors are designed and marketed by the company with the same name. If you are looking for permanent applications of the connection, JST connectors with their reliability and compact design will be your best option.

Once you attach the connector within the PCB, it will be extremely difficult to detach it.

IES Connectors:

It is a kind of transmission system that deals with AC power. You can find the IEC connectors in the older TV and computer versions but not in the latest models. It lacks any AC/DC converter, which has resulted in its diminishing in recent days.

Final Words

We have tried to include only the most commonly used and known PCB connector types in the list. However, there’re so many types of PCB connectors that it is nearly impossible, to sum up all of them within one article.

Some common connector types for PCB also include pin header connector, testing connector, screw terminals, alligator clips, IC clips, banana, and SMA connectors. FX PCB excels in developing PCBs to work with different connectors for various devices with reliability and affordability to make your business boom.

Peter Gong
Peter Gong

I am Peter Gong. I have been working in PCB and PCBA industry for 15+ years now. I have been a part of the PCB revolution with my dedication to circuit board technologies and creative ideas. I write in FX PCB to impart my knowledge on PCB and PCBA for all circuit board lovers, manufacturers, and users.

Cheap PCB Prototype

Cheap PCB Prototype

Cheap PCB Prototype

PCB, aka, the printed circuit board has definitely changed the course of electric and electronics history forever. From the most advanced electrical vehicles to the engineering university project accomplishment, PCBs are essential almost in every sector. However, students and the first-time maker may not need high-end and expensive PCBs at all. Instead, they can work fine with the PCB prototypes.

Thus, many people look for cheap PCB prototypes. Also, manufacturers and users of PCB want to know the cost of PCB.

Ideally, PCB prototypes are easy to manufacture and cheaply available. Plus, it has limited applications and usability. Nonetheless, we will discuss the lowest PCB price ensuring that you get the best quality with its prototypes.

So, let’s check this out.

Table of Contents

Factors Determining PCB Prototype Cost

When you look to find cheap prototypes, you have to first understand how the costing works for these circuit board prototypes. It will help you fix which side needs more attention and which you can leave to get the prototypes within your budget range.

The most common features that affect the PCB prototype cost includes-

Size of PCB Prototype:

Not all prototypes will be the same size. The size will vary depending on your PCB applications and project needs. As a rule of thumb, larger circuit boards will cost more than smaller boards. It happens because larger boards will need more materials and time for production.

Types of PCB:

Printed circuit boards are available in different types depending on their substrate materials. You can get the prototypes in standard copper, ceramic, transparent glass, and other materials. Usually, copper circuit boards are the cheapest, and ceramic  boards are the most expensive ones.

However, for simple engineering projects and students, copper-based PCBs will be the best choice. It is moderately priced and also features just about the right facilities you would want. Some high-end PCBs may include ceramic PCBs. But it won’t serve amateurs’ purpose.

Numbers of PCB Layers:

Next, the number of layers on the prototypes will also determine its cost. As you may imagine, single-layer PCBs are the most affordable. As the layers on the PCB prototype increase, the manufacturing cost of the circuit board will also increase.

For instance, 6 layer blue mask PCB soldering will be 2X costlier compared to the Flex 4 layer PCBs. Thus, your costing for the overall PCB prototype will depend heavily on the number of layers it has. Ideally, high-end electrical vehicles will need dual or four layers on their PCB segmentation. On the contrary, PCB makers on a strict budget will easily get on with the single-layer circuit boards for their regular projects.

PCB Complexity:

The next big factor for PCB cost is its complexity. The complexity of the printed circuit board will refer to the number of components it has, the density of the board, its wiring system, etc. For example, high-end circuit boards will surely have more components which will skyrocket their pricing.

Similarly, the wiring system will define its overall pricing. Next, the substrate density comes forward to add to the costing factor.

Manufacturing Speed and PCB Numbers:

You have to fix it when you need the circuit board prototypes. Do you need express delivery or regular delivery for the prototypes? Similarly, you have to decide how many prototypes you will need for your projects.

If you need quick production and delivery of the circuit board prototypes, you will have to pay more for it. On the contrary, if you are ready to get the circuit board on a delayed deadline, you can get them cheaply.

On top of it, the number of PCB prototypes you need will also determine its cost. If you need a few pieces of prototypes, its per piece cost will be much higher. But, if you need these prototypes in hundreds, the cost for each PCB will reduce dramatically.

Cheap PCB Prototype:

Since we know understand the factors that determine prototype costs, let’s turn the focus on the cheapest prototypes. But for this, you need to learn the actual price of the PCB prototypes. But it is indeed difficult until you can determine which prototype you want along with its layers, efficiency, and delivery time.

For instance, at times the bare board may cost over $100. On the contrary, the prototype can be gettable in just a few dollars. As the general rule suggests to us, the prototype will cost will depend on the size of the PCB prototype batch. If the circuit board manufacturing batch is large enough you can indeed get it cheaper price.

For instance, FX PCB will deliver you a bare prototype for around $2 to $3, for the standard ones. The costing will remain more or less the same for other manufacturers as well. Nonetheless, you can expect to get a 10cmX10cm by circuit board prototype for around $2.

The actual configuration that you can get with these two dollar for prototypes-

  • A 10cm by 10cm board.
  • 10 pieces of board
  • It will have 2 layers, maximum
  • The copper track or substrate will be 1.6mm thick
  • Its weight (copper track) will be 1oz.

If you order more circuit board prototypes such as 100 prototypes with the same specifications, the cost for each board will reduce significantly.

FX PCB uses the modern automation system and advanced circuit board designing software to manufacture the prototypes. Plus, our cost-cutting and streamlined production line also help to reduce the circuit board cost. All these facilities help FX PCB to supply the cheapest circuit board prototypes for students and budget makers.


Although many people won’t believe it, you can get a cheap PCB prototype in around two dollars. If you plan for a student project or simply need it for simple device manufacturing, you can get them. FX PCB is ready to deliver the circuit board prototypes of different categories at the least possible price. But it won’t compromise with the quality which will provide you get relief if you are on a strict budget.

Peter Gong
Peter Gong

I am Peter Gong. I have been working in PCB and PCBA industry for 15+ years now. I have been a part of the PCB revolution with my dedication to circuit board technologies and creative ideas. I write in FX PCB to impart my knowledge on PCB and PCBA for all circuit board lovers, manufacturers, and users.

The 5 Best PCB Designing Software

Best PCB Designing Software

The 5 Best PCB Designing Software

The first step to start manufacturing a printed circuit board is to design it. And for this, you will need software to layout the PCB design. However, choosing the right software for PCB designing isn’t easy since the market is full of PCB software. In fact, there’s simply too much software to design printed circuit boards. But sadly, not all of them are recommendable.

Hence, we prepared a guideline on the best PCB designing software to aid you with the cause. If you plan to start PCB manufacturing for your devices, these five recommendations will be a world of good for you.

So, let’s begin it.

Table of Contents

The Five Best PCB Designing Software

You must understand that PCB software is no cheap item. You have to invest nearly $1000 to $2500 yearly for them. Some high-end software may even charge more for you. That’s why you must get the absolute best software which is worth the massive investment.

1. Altium:

Altium was founded in Australia in 1985. Previously their name was Pretol Systems, but the company changed its name in 2001. Also, the software manufacturer operates from America and has become the leader inthe PCB software industry.

As of their 2019 report, they get at least 6000 new PCB manufacturers every year. They aim to get a $20 million turnover by 2020, which has been postponed due to pandemic conditions.

Its main specifications are-

  • PCB design with the diagram
  • File output for production
  • You will get layout, documentation, diagram, and simulating facility
  • It uses conversion tools to transfer the data easily

If you are an electronics engineer and work for PCB industrial groups, Altium is the best choice for you. Its cost starts from $7000. However, you can get a 15-days trial to check out its benefits and decide whether or not it suits your necessity.

2. Eagle:

Next on our list is Eagle software for PCB designing. Eagle was founded in 1988, but Autodesk took it over in 2016. The software has around $2 billion of turnover each year, making it the most profitable PCB design software on our list.

Also, note that Eagle refers to Easily Applicable Graphical Layout Editor. You can get the software in three versions, including free, standard, and premium. Its main features include-

  • Diagram design and editor
  • Changing facility between PCB and diagram with the annotations
  • Diagram layout and hierarchy

You can get it $500 for each year with the standard version. However, its interface is not so user-friendly and may not suit beginners.

3. Proteus:

Labcenter Electronics Ltd developed The Proteus electronic CAD solution. The company is based in the United Kingdom and was established by John Jameson. The software has been one of the most popular PCB designers and is used in over 50 countries. It is particularly popular in Asian countries.

Proteus software suite offers two main versions with different specifications and features. It includes-

  • Proteus AERES: It offers component positioning on the board with the automatic application. You can also use it for routing solutions of PCB.
  • Proteus ISI: You can use it for electric stimulation and creating diagrams.

Proteus software also offers a few other versions for different uses. It includes visual designer, PCB designing, and VSM versions. Also, the PCB designing software allows you to design 16 copper layers at the same time.

4. Design Spark:

It is high-performing CAD software. Number One Systems and RS Components collaborated to design and develop the software. It has now become a popular choice for CAD engineers and PCB developers for its user-friendly interface.

Its best specifications and interfaces include-

  • Quick diagram entry with a 3D viewer
  • Easy organization of files with project interface
  • Drilling file generation for Excellon and Gerber
  • Both automatic and routing facilities for component positioning

5. CAD PCB Designer:

ECAD and SDA Systems merged to develop CAD PCB Designer in 1988. The company is listed on NASDAQ and is based in California. It is one of the leaders in the PCB designing industry with a great interface and flexible versions for different users.

Its best features and specifications include-

  • BGA assistance and symbol editor
  • Component searching and electric simulation
  • You can create the PCB design and shapes automatically
  • It lets you develop real-time routing with an easy interface

What To Look At While Getting The Best PCB Designing Software

According to PCB designers, engineers, and manufacturers, a PCB designing software should fulfill the following criteria-

  1. The software must be intuitive and provide an easy userinterface. If the interface is complex, you will need huge time to learn it. The learning curve must be quick and easy.
  2. The software should follow the standard set for the PCB industry and enjoy widespread uses. If the software is limited to a few manufacturers, its intuitive design will be massively dumped. In this regard, Altium and Eagle enjoy the best suggestions with the most widespread uses.
  3. The component library should be large. If the software provider has a small component library, you will find designing the pretty difficult. When you have large library access, you can easily use it to compare and find the errors of the newly designed PCB. So, it has a lesser possibility of any errors on the circuit board.
  4. The software must come with as many features as possible. Altium offers maximum features that you can’t even imagine. Although you won’t use all the features, having more features will provide you confidence and different usability if need be.
  5. Lastly, the pricing of the software must be reasonable. It is essential since the designing software for PCB is expensive.

When you decide to get a PCB designing software, we recommend using the free trial for the allowed days and seeing how it feels. It will enable you to get the right software at the most affordable pricing and with most features, for sure.

Final Words

PCB designing is no easy task. It needs extreme attention, creativity, sound knowledge of PCB, and above all, the right software. Therefore, we recommended you the best PCB designing software to help you with the design layout.

We looked at the user interface and easiness of using the software mostly. Also, these are the five most widely used software for PCB design worldwide. So, you can actually compare them easily and decide which will support your requirements mostly.

Peter Gong
Peter Gong

I am Peter Gong. I have been working in PCB and PCBA industry for 15+ years now. I have been a part of the PCB revolution with my dedication to circuit board technologies and creative ideas. I write in FX PCB to impart my knowledge on PCB and PCBA for all circuit board lovers, manufacturers, and users.